INTRODUCTION

IMPLAN releases International data every three years. Users will automatically have access to the latest International Data Year with a current subscription. The latest 2018 International data includes the following 66 countries at the national level:

Argentina  Denmark  Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) Russian Federation 
Australia  Estonia  Latvia  Saudi Arabia 
Austria  Finland  Lithuania  Singapore 
Belgium  France  Luxembourg  Slovak Republic 
Brazil  Germany  Malaysia  Slovenia 
Brunei Darussalam  Greece  Malta  South Africa 
Bulgaria  Hong Kong, China  Mexico  Spain 
Cambodia  Hungary  Morocco  Sweden 
Canada  Iceland  Myanmar  
Chile  India  Netherlands  Switzerland 
China (People's Republic of)  Indonesia  New Zealand  Thailand 
Chinese Taipei (Taiwan)  Ireland  Norway  Tunisia 
Colombia  Israel  Peru  Türkiye
Costa Rica  Italy  Philippines  United Kingdom 
Croatia  Japan  Poland  United States 
Cyprus  Kazakhstan  Portugal  Viet nam 
Czech Republic (Czechia) Korea (South) Romania   

 

HOW TO ACCESS INTERNATIONAL

First, you will need to access your IMPLAN account and go to the project tab. From the project tile, click New Project in the top right of the screen.

A popup window will appear to create a new project. The Industry Set should be set to the 46 Industries for Data Year 2018 (37 Industries for Data Year 2015). These Industry Sets are specifically for the International data. 

After the correct Industry Set is selected, name the project, then click Create Project.

After creating the Project, the Regions screen will appear in the Map View of the world. Select a Region by clicking on the map, using the Search Bar, or from the List View. 

Alternatively, you can also create a project starting from the Industry Aggregation Setting under User Preferences.

INDUSTRY LIST

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) releases I-O tables every three years. As such, IMPLAN follows suit and introduces those new underlying sets of industry production functions with each data set. The current Industry Set for 2018 International contains the 46 Industries and their respective Commodities. The 46 International Industry Scheme includes 45 functional Industries, plus one added Industry - Taxes on Products Net of Subsidies (TOPS) that other Industries pay. This is necessary due to the data being in Basic Prices, which is slightly different from US-based models, which are in Producer Prices. 

DATA SOURCES

All Input-Output tables come from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and include distinct I-O (transactions) matrices for each country, as well as Output, Value-Added, and Final Demand for each Industry by each Institution. While each country has its own Structural Matrix (SM) data, the components of the Structural Matrix (SM) will be identical across Regions. Additionally, all monetary values in the data are represented in US Dollars (USD), not a country's national currency. The OECD provides a currency conversion file to convert to and from USD to a national currency in the data set.

The data source(s) and methods for employment estimates vary by country, with one of four ranked options employed for each county depending on which of the four options is available for each country. Some of the options involve projecting and/or splitting into more Industry detail, and some of the options involve more than one raw data set. The three raw data sets employed are the Labour Force Statistics (LFS) and Modelled Estimates and Projections (EST) versions of the International Labour Organization employment data and the World Input-Output Database employment data.  

A variety of sources were used for demographic data (land area, population, household counts) and inter-institutional transfer payment rates (savings rates, tax rates, etc.), depending on data availability for each country from each data source.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

There are a few distinct differences between the data used in the US Annual Data sets and the International Product. The majority of these differences can be attributed to Industries in the International Product.

The main difference has to do with the accounting of Taxes on Products Net of Subsidies (TOPS), which in the Basic Prices framework are accounted for under the Industry that pays those taxes (Industry that purchased the Commodity) as opposed to the Industry that remits those taxes in the Producer Prices framework (Industry that sold the Commodity, which may the producing Industry, wholesaler, or retailer). As such, in the International Product these taxes are not a part of the paying Industry’s Value Added, but rather as part of its Intermediate Inputs (II), and therefore are represented as a purchase of Industry TOPS, in the paying Industry’s production function. Therefore, TOPS Industry is for accounting purposes only, not to be used to model impacts. 

While there are still four categories of Value Added (VA) in the International Product, there is a slight variation from the US in how these are accounted for. First, International Industries have only total employment values (no break-out by type) and only one type of Labor Income (Employee Compensation). Second, in the OECD data Proprietor Income (PI) is combined with Other Property Income (OPI) to form Gross Operating Surplus (GOS). As there is no way to separate PI from GOS, it is not treated as part of Labor Income in the International Product and will not generate any induced effects. Third, the Other Taxes on Production net of Subsidies (OTXS) does not include any taxes on imports, as taxes on products are now accounted for under each Industry’s Intermediate Inputs spending. In the International Product, OTXS mainly consists of taxes on the ownership or use of land, buildings, or other assets (property taxes, business licenses).

Value Added Component Definition Difference to US
Employee Compensation (EC) Total payroll cost of the employee including wages and salaries, all benefits (e.g., health, retirement), and payroll taxes none
Gross Operating Surplus (GOS) Includes consumption of fixed capital (CFC), proprietors' income, corporate profits, and business current transfer payments (net) US reports Proprietor Income separately and is analyzed as part of Labor Income
Other Taxes on Production net of Subsidies (OTXS) Consist of all taxes except taxes on products that enterprises incur as a result of engaging in production. Such taxes do not include any taxes on the profits or other income received by the enterprise and are payable regardless of the profitability of the production. They may be payable on the land or other fixed assets  Excludes taxes on imports - in OECD data those are included TOPS Industry under Intermediate Inputs

Unlike IMPLAN’s other products, the International Product does not include a unique Industry for retailers and wholesalers. In the 46 and 37 International Industry Sets, retailers and wholesalers are combined with a few other Industries like car washes and automotive repair. This Industry is called Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles. As retail and wholesale Industries are marginable Industries, unlike car washes which are not, special attention is required when modeling Events under this Industry. When creating an Impact for the non-marginable Industries that are classified under this Industry (like a car wash), we recommend that you set the Margin to ‘Producer Price’ in the Advanced Fields option. This will ensure that no Margins are erroneously applied to the Event value. 

Lastly, there are fewer Institutions available in the International Product as compared to the US-based data. The I-O tables from OECD only contain two Household Institutions  – 'Households' and ‘Non-Profit Institutions Primarily Serving Households’ (NPISH). The OECD data do not separate households into multiple household income groups, so all households are included in a single Household Institution. The treatment of NPISH as a household does also occur in US-based data, it is just that in the US data the two are not reported separately (i.e., the NPISH account is combined with the household accounts). Additionally, there is only one government institution in the OECD data – Government Consumption Expenditures. All other institutions in the Structural Matrix (SM) are the same as in the US-based data (Capital, Inventory, Domestic Trade, and Foreign Trade).

Currently, IMPLAN does not have any inter-country trade flows available for the International Product. There is a total foreign trade estimate used to determine the availability of any Commodity in each country, but we do not have data on the country-to-country flows. Due to this, the Multi-Regional Input-Output Analysis (MRIO) is not available for the International Product.

RELATED ARTICLES

International 46 Industries, Conversions, & Bridges

International 37 Industries, Conversions, & Bridges

 

Written August 30, 2023