Special Industries in IMPLAN: Farm, Construction, Railroad, and Government

OVERVIEW

There are several Industries that are not covered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Census of Employment and Wage (CEW) data that require different data points and additional techniques to capture.

These Special Industries include the following:

  • Farm Industries
  • Construction Industries
  • Government sectors

Using a different data source is one of two approaches that IMPLAN employs to account for exclusions and undercoverage by the CEW. Read more about this in Accounting for Undercoverage in the BLS CEW Wage and Salary Income and Employment Data.

FARM INDUSTRIES

OUTPUT

The primary data sources for state-level agricultural Output by Industry are the NASS Value of Production and ERS Annual Cash Receipts data sets, both from the USDA. The county-level data from these sources are not consistent enough for our use; thus, we use data from the latest Census of Agriculture to estimate county-level farm Industry Output. Census of Agriculture data is also used to estimate state-level values not disclosed by NASS or ERS. More details can be found in the article Farm Data Sources and Procedures.

EMPLOYMENT & INCOME

BLS’ CEW does have estimates of Wage & Salary Employment for farms with about 90% coverage. However, the CEW data for farm Industries are particularly difficult to integrate because BLS’ CEW data establishments are not reclassified year to year, while farmer commodity production is. For example, a given farmer will plant either corn or soybeans (2 separate IMPLAN Industries) based on that year's prices and/or how late in the year they are able to plant their crops. Also, the CEW data does not include Proprietors.

The BEA's Regional Economic Accounts (REA) program estimates county-level employment and income data, including Proprietors, but these are farm totals that are not broken down by type of agricultural commodity. Therefore, we have developed procedures to generate first estimates of employment and income by commodity and county based on annual Output values (described above) and various ratios from the Census of Agriculture and state-level data. These first estimates are controlled to the total farm employment value given by the REA data, as well as to higher geographic levels.

Some of the state and county farm Industries are subject to large adjustments when controlled to the national totals. This is a result of inconsistencies between sources. Our benchmark dataset is the published ERS data for Output. Since the agriculture data is, to a large extent, derived, analysts with local agriculture data are encouraged to use it. More details can be found in the article Farm Data Procedures.

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRIES

IMPLAN construction Industries are not NAICS-based, but rather are defined by the Census Bureau’s types of construction. There are 10 new construction and 3 maintenance and repair construction Industries in IMPLAN's current Industry scheme.

OUTPUT

National Output values for the new construction Industries come from BEA NIPA tables 5.4.5-Private Fixed Investment in Structures by Type and 5.9.5. Gross Government Fixed Investment by Type. National Output for the maintenance and repair construction Industries are based on the ratio of maintenance and repair to new construction from the BEA's Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Industry series. These values already contain "redefined" construction activity and thus do not require any redefinition procedures on our part. These national values are distributed to states and counties based on employment and income.

EMPLOYMENT & INCOME

The BLS' CEW data and the BEA's REA data provide construction employment and income values at the national, state, and county level for a single aggregate construction sector. These values are split amongst IMPLAN's 13 construction Industries using various ratios from the latest BEA Benchmark I-O tables. "In-house" construction activity performed by non-construction Industries is "re-defined" into the appropriate construction Industries, following BEA Benchmark conventions. All estimates are then controlled to higher geographic levels.

RAILROAD

The BLS’ CEW excludes most employees of railroads. Therefore, IMPLAN obtains railroad employment data from the U.S. Railroad Retirement Board.

GOVERNMENT

ADMINISTRATIVE GOVERNMENT VERSUS GOVERNMENT ENTERPRISES

IMPLAN data includes several types of government activity. "Administrative" or "general" government is considered an Institution in IMPLAN. There are payroll-only Industries that are purchased exclusively by administrative government spending patterns. In contrast, government enterprises are Industries that have profiles similar to those of Industries. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) defines government enterprises as "Government agencies that cover a substantial portion of their operating costs by selling goods and services to the public and that maintain their own separate accounts." The BEA Benchmark I-O tables treat government enterprises as industries and IMPLAN follows this convention. IMPLAN has 8 government enterprise Industries. All remaining government agencies are part of "general" or "administrative" government.

ASSIGNING NAICS-BASED ESTABLISHMENTS TO IMPLAN CODES

Most data sources other than the BEA Benchmark table do not distinguish government enterprises from administrative government establishments. The BLS' CEW program, for example, reports employment and wages for government establishments by NAICS code and by ownership type (federal, state, or local). We assign government establishments to enterprise or administrative payroll Industries according to the BEA Benchmark table. If a government enterprise makes a particular commodity, then any government establishment that fits the NAICS code of that commodity is classified as a government enterprise. For example, in the latest (2012) BEA Benchmark table, "Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution," which corresponds to NAICS 2211, is made by private businesses in the electrical Industries but also by "State and local government electric utilities." Accordingly, any government establishment owned by state or local government under NAICS 2211 is classified in IMPLAN Industry 530 or 533, respectively. If the BEA Benchmark table does not show a government enterprise Industry making a Commodity, then any government establishment in that Commodity's corresponding NAICS code is classified as administrative government. Tables 1 through 3 show IMPLAN Industry assignments for establishments by ownership type and NAICS code. Note that military employment is not covered by any of our NAICS-based sources and is estimated from military employment data reported by the BEA.

Table 1: Federal Government 

IMPLAN Industry Description NAICS Code
526 Postal Service 491 Postal Service
527 Federal Electric Utilities 2211 Power Generation and Supply
528 Other Federal Government Enterprises

44-45 Retail Trade

481 Air Transportation

531 Real Estate

51213 Motion Picture and Video Exhibition

5241 Insurance Carriers

722 Food Services and Drinking Places

8121 Personal Care Services

545

*Employment and Payroll Federal Government Military

Not reported on a NAICS basis

546 *Employment and Payroll Federal Government Non-Military All other NAICS codes

 

Table 2: State Government 

IMPLAN Industry Description NAICS Code
529 State Government Passenger Transport 485 Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation
530 State Government Electric Utilities 2211 Power Generation and Supply
531 Other State Government Enterprises

2212 Natural Gas Distribution

2213 Water, Sewage and Other Systems

7112 Spectator Sports

7132 Gambling Industries

72112 Casino Hotels

5241 Insurance Carriers

521 Monetary Authorities - Central Bank

5221 Depository Credit Intermediation

531 Real Estate

562 Waste Management and Remediation Services

4453 Beer, Wine and Liquor Stores

481 Air Transportation

482 Rail Transportation

483 Water Transportation

487 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation

539

*Employment and Payroll State Government Education

61

540 *Employment and payroll of state govt, hospitals and health services All other NAICS codes
541 *Employment and payroll of state govt, other services All other NAICS codes

 

Table 3: Local Government 

IMPLAN Industry Description NAICS Code
532 Local Government Passenger Transport 485 Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation
533 Local Government Electric Utilities 2211 Power Generation and Supply
534 Other Local Government Enterprises

2212 Natural Gas Distribution

2213 Water, Sewage and Other Systems

4453 Beer, Wine and Liquor Stores

5241 Insurance Carriers

531 Real Estate

562 Waste Management and Remediation Services

7112 Spectator Sports

481 Air Transportation

482 Rail Transportation

483 Water Transportation

487 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation

521 Monetary Authorities - Central Bank

5221 Depository Credit Intermediation

72112 Casino Hotels

7132 Gambling Industries

542 *Employment and payroll of local govt, education

61

543 *Employment and payroll of local govt, hospitals and health services

All other NAICS codes

544 *Employment and payroll of local govt, other services

All other NAICS codes

ESTIMATING EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES

The BEA’s REA data are our controls; however, while the BEA’s REA data break out State Government from Local Government, they don't have the necessary Industry breakout (Education vs. Hospitals and Health Services vs. Other Services). Thus, we use the government-level BLS’ CEW data to split the disclosed and projected BEA REA State and Local Government data into the associated IMPLAN industries (Education, Hospitals and Health Services, and Other Services).

RELATED ARTICLES

Accounting for Undercoverage in the BLS CEW Wage and Salary Income and Employment Data

Estimating Non-Disclosed Values in the Source Data for IMPLAN Employment and Labor Income

Employment and Labor Income Data Sources

Proprietor Employment and Income Data

 

Written April 18, 2024